WHAT IS A DUAL EXHAUST?
On the topic of exhaust tips, this is a good place to talk about the difference between those and dual exhaust. Many sporty vehicles will have dual or even quad exhaust tips that are still part of a single exhaust system.
In a typical V6 or V8 dual exhaust from goblackops.com.au/collections/holden-commodore-ve-vf-exhaust, each bank of cylinders has its own system. As a result, the engine doesn't have to push the gases from all six or eight cylinders through the same exhaust pipe into a single muffler. Because the engine wastes less power doing that, there's more available for performance.
WHAT IS A CAT-BACK EXHAUST?
Another term thrown around by enthusiasts is a "cat-back exhaust." Now, this doesn't really refer to one specific kind of exhaust system. It's more a description of where along with the system you're making changes.
If you've got a cat-back exhaust, it means you've upgraded all parts of your exhaust system behind your catalytic converter. That is, from the "cat" back.
IS A TURBOCHARGER PART OF THE EXHAUST SYSTEM?
Sort of. You can think of a turbocharger as a single fan with a dual set of blades. They're like two small wheels separated by a very short axle. One set of blades is incorporated into the flow of exhaust gas from the engine.
The more exhaust gas, the faster these blades spin. Since they're connected to the other fan blades, those start spinning as well. The second set, however, is part of the intake system. They suck in more fresh air to force into the engine cylinders so they can create more power.